Study of the Relationship between Blood Groups and Smoking in a Sample of Students at Al-Hawash Private University Research submitted to obtain a Bachelor’s Degree in Pharmacy Prepared by: Bashar Deeb, Laila Bishara, Emad Jabbour and Hala Shaar Supervision Prof.Ge0rgeos Deeb

العلاقة بين الزمر الدموية والتدخينIntroduction
A few studies have examined the relationship between blood groups and smoking. A study of the relationship between blood groups and smoking indicates that the frequency of group B is high in smokers (Higgins, et al.(
Little data available on the relationship between blood groups and smoking, let alone, no study in Syria has been conducted on this issue.
The aim of the study is to study the potential relationship between blood groups and smoking in a random sample of students of Hawash Private University.
Materials and Methods:
Place of study: Al Hawash Private University – Faculty of Pharmacy
The study was conducted in random samples of 550 students (359 males and 195 females) healthy students from the Faculty of Pharmacy at Al-Hawash Private University for ages 19-24 years
The venous blood sample was taken after a fasting period of not less than three hours by sterile syringes (3 cm) and collected in special tubes with anticoagulant (EDTA) and kept in the fridge at a temperature of 4 m.
Blood groups were determined using a standard antibody.
The data and indicators studied were statistically treated using Excel Microsoft

Results
The percentage of students who smoked was 73.4% (404 out of 550 students, 288 males and 120 females). The distribution of the blood groups in Figs. 1,2,3,4 and 5 was as follows:
• Group O 41.3% (41% males, 42.2% female) and constitute 78.4% of the total number of students with the same group (84.9% males, 66.2% females).
• Group A 36.6% (35.4% male, 39.7% female) and constitute 67.6% of the total number of students with the same group (76.2% male, 54.1% female).
• Group B 16.8% (18.1% male, 13.8% female) and constitute 73.1% of the total number of students with the same group (80% male, 57.1% female).
• Group AB 5.2% (5.7% males, 4.3% females), constituting 72.4% of the total number of students with the same group (76.2% males, 62.5% females).
The proportion of female smokers with A and O is slightly higher than their male counterparts, and the proportion of male smokers with group B, AB, is higher than that of females.
The percentage of males and females in males and females is shown in Figs 7,8,9 as follows:
The percentage of smokers with the O + group was the highest in both males and females.
The percentage of smokers with group A + was higher among females (37.1%) than male counterparts (32.3%).
The proportion of smokers with B + was higher among males (15.3%) than female counterparts (12.1).
The percentage of smokers with group AB + was higher for males (5.6%) than for females (4.3%).
The percentage of smokers with group A was 2.8% in males and 1.7% in females.
The percentage of group O – was 1.4% for males and 2.6% for females.
The analysis of the blood group ABO and RH in both males and females is expressed as a percentage of the total number of students with the same blood group as shown:
• The percentage of the group O + 79.6% (86.4% male, 66.7% female) of the total number of students with the same group.
• The percentage of group B + 73.4% (81.5% males, 56.0% females) of the total number of students with the same group.
• The percentage of the group AB + 72.4% (76.2% males, 62.5% females) of the total number of students with the same group.
• The percentage of group B- 71.4% (72.7% males, 66.7% females) of the total number of students who have the same group.
• Group A + 68.3% (77.5% males, 54.4% females) of the total number of students with the same group.
• The percentage of group A-60.0% (64.3% males, 50.0% female) of the total number of students with the same group.
• The percentage of the group O-58.3% (57.1% male, 60.0% female) of the total number of students with the same group.
The results of the study show that the percentage of smokers with the O + group was highest in both males and females. In contrast, the percentage of male smokers who hold the O-group was lower among all groups. In addition, the proportion of female smokers who carry the group O – higher than the proportion of male smokers and those with the same blood group.
It was found that the proportion of male smokers was higher than that of females in all groups except the group O. The highest percentage of female smokers were those who have the group B-.

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