Study of the Relationship Between Blood Groups and Anemia in a Sample of Students at Al-Hawash Private University Research submitted to obtain the degree of leave in pharmacy Prepared by: Bashar Deeb, Laila Bishara, Emad Jabbour, Hala Shaar Supervisor: Prof. Ge0rgeos Deeb

Introduction
A few studies have examined the relationship between blood groups and smoking. A study of the relationship between blood groups and smoking indicates study indicates that individuals belonging to the blood groups B, A or AB are more susceptible to anemia than those with blood group O (Basak Asim Kumar, and Maji Kaushik 2013)
Little data available on the relationship between blood groups and anemia, let alone, no study in Syria has been conducted on this issue.
The aim of the study is to study the potential relationship between blood groups and smoking in a random sample of students of Hawash Private University.
Objective of the study: The aim of the study is to study the potential relationship between blood groups and anemia in a random sample of students of Hawash Private University.

Materials and Methods of Study
Place of study: Al-Hawash Private University – Faculty of Pharmacy
The study was conducted in random sample of 550 students (359 males and 195 females) healthy students from the Faculty of Pharmacy at Hawash University for ages 19-24 years
The venous blood sample was taken after a fasting period of not less than three hours by sterile syringes (3 cm) and collected in special tubes with anticoagulant (EDTA) and kept in the fridge at a temperature of 4 m.
Blood groups were determined using a standard antibody. Number of erythrocytes, hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration,mean cell hemoglobin MCH, and Mean corpuscular volume MCV were measured by automated counter: Fully Automatic Hematology Analyzer-Double Channel and 3part WBC HA04 Manufacture of Rehab Medical.
The data and indicators studied were statistically treated using Excel Microsoft.
Results
The study of hemoglobin concentration showed that the mean concentration of males was (15.3 g / 100 ml) and females (12.4 g / 100 ml) located in the normal area.
In analyzing the concentration of hemoglobin in both males and females, the proportion of males with hemoglobin concentration within the range (13-18 g / 100 ml) was 95.5%, higher than the percentage of females who had hemoglobin concentrations within the same range (11.5-16.5) g / 100 ml) which is 80.5%. The percentage of females with hemoglobin concentration below 11.5 g / 100 ml was 19.5%, higher than their male counterparts (hemoglobin concentration less than 13 g / 100 ml) by 15.6%. In contrast, females did not have any case of concentration of hemoglobin higher than both, while in males it was 0.6%.
An analysis of the pattern of anemia in males shows that 64.3% of the patients have normochromic normocytic anemia (MCH in the range 26-36 kg and MCV in the area 76-96 mm) and 35.7% have hypochromic microcytic anemia (MCH below 26 pg and MCV below 76mcmᶟ).
In females, the percentage of patients with normochromic normocytic anemia was 47.4% and percentage of patients with hypochromic microcytic anemia was 39.5%.
The results of analysis of the relationship between blood groups and concentration of hemoglobin show that 95% of the male students with groups A, B, O have normal hemoglobin, while all the male students with the group AB have normal hemoglobin. On the other hand, the percentage of females with normal hemoglobin in the different of the group ABO as follows: AB: (87.5%), O: (82.4%), B: (82.1%), A: (77.6%).
In contrast, the analysis of blood groups in students with anemia showed that the frequency of blood groups in the women with anemia for the total number of females carrying the same group was as follows:
• Group A (22.4%) of the total number of female students with the same blood group.
• Group O (17.6%) of the total number of female students who have the same blood group.
• Group B (17.9%) of the total number of female students with the same blood group.
• Group AB (12.5%) of the total number of female students who have the same blood group
In contrast, the percentage of male students diagnosed with anemia was as follows:
• Group A (4.5%) of the total number of male students with the same blood group.
• O group (4.3%) of all male students with the same blood group.
• Group B (3.1%) of all male students with the same blood group.
• Males with anemia were not reported to have the AB group
In the Rh group, no significant differences were observed in mean hemoglobin concentrations in males and females positive and negative Rhizos.
Students with the AB + group had the highest percentage of male hemoglobin concentrations (16.1 g / 100ml).
Students with A-group have the lowest percentage of mean hemoglobin concentrations in males (g / 100ml14.6).
In general, the mean hemoglobin concentration was higher than 15 g / 100ml in all blood groups except group A for males.
Female students had an average hemoglobin concentration of 12.1-12.5 g / 100ml in all blood groups except the O-group, with mean hemoglobin concentrations of 11.8 g / 100ml.العلاقة بين الزمر الدموية وفقر الدم

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