Studying the relationship between the level of educational achievement and smoking in a sample of students of Hawash Private University Research submitted to obtain a bachelor’s degree in pharmacy Prepared by: Bashar Deeb, Laila Bishara, Emad Jabbour and Hlaa shear supervision Prof. Ge0rgeos Deeb

Introduction

Studies have shown that smokers suffer from poor compatibility, anxiety, self-dissatisfaction, poor self-control, rebellion, and stress. All these factors affect the psychology of the learner and the level of academic achievement of students who smoke.

Some studies have shown that smoking was more common among adolescents with low academic performance compared to high performance (2019 Kuipers, Mirte A G).

Poor academic performance is associated with an increased risk of smoking, frequent smoking, more cigarette use, and fewer attempts to quit smoking (Tucker, Green, Pollard, & Kennedy, 2012, Go, Green, HD, Pollard, M., & Kennedy (2012).

Some studies have indicated that poor students are often smokers because of confusing factors, such as the social and economic background of the family (Ali, Dwyer, 2009, Ali, MM, & Dwyer, 2009). , Tucker, JS, Green, HD, Pollard, M., & Kennedy, D. (2012).

Poor academic performance may be a known risk factor for student smoking, but the relationship is still unclear, as the role of other relationships is rarely examined. Our study aims to study the relationship between the level of educational attainment and smoking in a random sample of students of Hawash Private University and try to explore the role of the economic situation from the fact that the financial situation and the economic situation of the students of the university is somewhat mediocre if not good.

In addition, no research has yet been recorded in Syria on the relationship between the level of academic achievement and smoking among university students in general, including private universities.

Materials and methods of research

The study was conducted in an elective sample of 550 students (359 males and 195 females) at Al Hawash University of Salars between 19 and 24 years old.

Determine the level of achievement of each student through his / her cumulative average (AGPA) obtained from his or her student record.

The data and indicators were studied statistically using Microsoft Excel

Materials and methods of research

The study was conducted in an elective sample of 550 students (359 males and 195 females) at Al Hawash University of Salars between 19 and 24 years old.

Determine the level of achievement of each student through his / her cumulative average (AGPA) obtained from his or her student record.

The data and indicators were studied statistically using Microsoft Excel.

Results

The percentage of students who smoked was 73.4% (404 out of 550 students, 288 males, 120 females).

A study of the relationship between the cumulative rate and smoking showed that the highest percentage of smokers in general was among students below 83.8% of the total number of students who were below 2 (90.9% male and 65% female).

The number of students with less than 1 was ranked second, with 79.4% of the total number of students with less than 1 (71% female and 81.4%).

In the third place was the group of students with an average of more than 2, with 64.9% (56.3% females and 70% males) of the total number of students who were above 2.

The lowest percentage of smokers was recorded among students with an average of higher than 3, with 48.1% (50% females and 45% males) of the total number of students who were above 3.

These findings confirm that smoking is more common among students with low academic attainment compared to students with higher education and the fact that the proportion of smokers is generally high among university students. In principle, the role of material deterioration and the economic background of the family in the use of cigarettes is denied.

العلاقة بين مستوى التحصيل العلمي والتدخين

The sexual differences in the mechanism of analgesia induced by swimming stress in Wistar rats Ge0rgeos Deeb

ABSTRACT

We had shown that the mechanism of analgesia induced by swimming stress in Wistar males is closely related to stress, some of the relation to this mechanism with cortical hormones. The aims of this research is to study the sexual differences in the mechanism of analgesia induced by swimming stress in both male and female Wistar rats and the possibility of its relation with sexual hormones. The male and female show an increase in the threshold of pain as result of swimming stress (Swimming in the water during 3 minutes, with 16 C). The analgesia in the females was more important compared with males. The pretreatment with naloxone led to a partial inhibition of stress- induced analgesia in both sexes, but in males it was more important. The testectomized rats which exhibited a good response to stress induced analgesia were similar the control males. In contrast the stress induced analgesia in ovariectomized rats was not so evident as in the control females. The naloxone had partial inhibition stress induced analgesia in both sexes. Contrary to the male testectomaized rats which showed a similar response to the control rats due to the naloxone, the inhibition is more important in ovariectomized female rats than in control rats. On the other hand the male rats which were pretreated with eulexin (antiandrogen) and the females treated with anti estrogen (tamoxifen) while they were under swimming stress have similar response to the gonadectomized rats where the naloxone had partially reduced the stress- induced analgesia. In this group of rats similarly for the registered inhibition in the gonadectomized rats. These results showes a relation between swimming stress-induced analgesia in Wistar rats and sex. The females showed swimming stress-induced analgesia more than the males. Contrary to the dominance of the opioid mechanisms and the absence of the cooperation of the androgens in stress-induced analgesia in the males. The females presents analgesia which is carried by opioid and non-opioid mechanisms in close relation with ovarian estrogens.

Key Words: Swimming Stress, Analgesia, Sex Differences, Sexual Hormones, Gonadectomy, Naloxone, Antiandrogen, Antiestrogen

The sexual differences in the mechanism of analgesia induced by swimming stress in Wistar rats

 

 

The Mechanism of Analgesia Induced by Swimming Stress and its Relation to Adrenal Cortex Hormones in Wistar Rats. Georgeos Deeb

ABSTRACT

In a previous study, we showed that analgesia induced by swimming stress (i.e. swimming in cold water, ١٧ C, for ١٠ minutes) is related to opium and non – opium – relevant mechanisms. The aim of our experiment is to study the mechanisms of analgesia (time for tail withdrawal test) stimulated by less stressful swimming (swimming in cold water, ١٧C, for ٤ minutes) in order to achieve an additional experimental evidence concerning the effect of adrenal cortex hormones induced by stress on this mechanism, and to discover some aspects of the effect mechanism in Wistar rats. Rats of control group showed, when being exposed to swimming stress,an analgesic feeling decreasing significantly and progressively until it disappears in the seventh day. However, control rats, which were exposed to morphine tolerance, showed no significant change in the threshold of pain feeling when exposed to related stress. On the other hand, no significant difference was reported in the progress of morphine tolerance stimulation (١٠mg/kg/day) in both control and identical groups regarding the number of injections and the average effect of morphine. In comparison with control rats, adrenalectomaized rats, when exposed to swimming stress,show analgesic feeling. This was reflected on the progress of the response, which was measured by latent time reduction of tail withdrawal to start value after ١٤ days of relevant stress. On the other hand, rats which had their adrenal glands removed and which were exposed to morphine tolerance stimulation, did not show significant change in the threshold of pain feeling when being exposed to swimming stress. In comparison with control rats, significant difference was reported in the progress of morphine tolerance stimulation among rats with removed adrenal glands. While a significant rise was reported in morphine doses and the average effect of morphine in adrenalectomized rats, a clear decrease in those doses and in the average effect of morphine was obtained among rats which had their adrenal glands removed and which are familiar with swimming stress. However, adrenalectomized rats, and those which were injected with adrenal gland extract (the extract of ٤٤,٦ mg tissue/kg/day) showed, when being exposed to swimming stress, similar response to that reported by control rats with respect to the progress of analgesic feeling or with respect to the progress of morphine tolerance stimulation, taking into account a relative significant decrease in the values of the latent time for tail withdrawal reported in both responses. These results show that analgesia induced by swimming stress occurs according to a response related to the decrease in the release of intrinsic opium. This decrease may be due to the blocking action of adrenal cortex hormones induced by stress on the release of the intrinsic opium, which may occur at glandular and nervous levels related to sedative organs.

Key Words: Swimming Stress – Analgesia – Morphine tolerance – Adrenal cortex hormones – Sedation

The Mechanism of Analgesia Induced by Swimming Stress and its Relation to Adrenal Cortex Hormones in Wistar Rats.

 

Effects of Cold and Emotional Stress on the Threshold of Algesia on Normal and the Adrenalectomized Rats Georgeos Deeb

Abstract

The adreno-cortical hormones ,are considered one of the most important parts of the nonspecific reaction of the organism to different stress effects including the stress induced analgesia . This paper is interested in the study of the effect of repeated cold stress(swimming in cold water ١٧ c for ten minutes) and the emotional stress (immobilization for ten minutes) for the average of six times daily for six days,(on the test of tail flick latency) in normal and adrenalectomized rats . The aim is to know the analgesic system and their probable relation wth the adreno-cortical hormones . As the normal and adrenalectomized rats are subject to cold stress, they are analgesic after the first and the last test during six days.The adrenalectomized rats are characterized by a mor important analgesia, which lasts for a longer time after the first and last stress compared with the normal animals,but contrary to the latest, the continuos response after the last stress is longer than the one after the first stress.When the normal rats are subject to emotional stress , this will cause hyperalgesia which disappears progressively and then completely after the six stress and the first value will be constant until the end of the experience.On the other hand the adrenalectomized rats are analgesic after the sixth stress of the first day and this will reach a climax on the third day and back to normal in the last day of the experiment. The injection of morphine to the rats (١٠mg\kg) shows that its analgesic effect on the adrenalectomizd rats (control) lasted for a longer time compared with the normal animals(control).Any difference in the analgesic effect of the morphine was observed in the normal animals while this analgesic effect decreases in the adrenalectomized rats when they subject to repeated stress. These results show that the cold stress is inducing opioid and non opioid analgesia systems.The adreno-cortical hormones induced by stress can control analgesia by affecting the opioid system.The emotional stress leads to opioid analgesic systems which are affected by the cortical steroids hormones. This could be responsible for hyper sensibility induced by emotional stress.

Key words: Cold stress-Emotional stress-Analgesia- Adrenalectomy-Morphine-Adreno-Cortical hormones.

Effects of Cold and Emotional Stress on the Threshold of Algesia on Normal and the Adrenalectomized Rats

 

Development of a web-based Geographic Information System for The City of Hama Dr.Eng. Hanan Kamel Darwish

Abstract
GIS is undoubtedly one of the most important decision support systems
in the world that can’t be dispensed with the rapid development areas
that we are witnessing today.
The role of these systems is not only to plan cities, infrastructure, digital
maps, marketing and education, but also to highlight their role in
tourism, archeology, traffic and safety.
There are many visitors and tourists to the city of Hama, Yearly the
search and selection process for the various touristic and service sites
require accurate and comprehensive information about the different
touristic, administrative and public services areas in the city. This paper
examines the development of a geographic information system on the
Internet that helps visitors to choose the places they wish to visit, their
places of residence and the important service areas themselves. The
system also facilitates the various tasks of the Governmental institutions
supervising the city to make the appropriate decisions to serve the
citizens. In addition, it will provide a database including digital maps,
descriptive data and photographs that help researchers in all fields.
Keywords: GIS, GIS server, GIS WEB Builder, ArcGIS Viewer for Silverlight

2018 تطوير نظام معلومات جغرافي على الشبكة العنكبوتية العالمية لمدينة حماة

Semi-Automatic Methodology for 3D Modeling and Visualization of Utility Networks in the GIS Environment Dr.Eng. Hanan DARWISHE

Abstract
Three dimensional modeling of utility networks is an important mean
of networks design, implementation, management and maintenance.
During the modeling process, we face a wide range of processes and
procedures to arrive at the correct final model.
This research proposes a semi-automatic methodology for 3D
modeling of infrastructure networks in GIS environment. This
methodology is based on the ModelBuilder in ArcGIS software by
developing two tools to automate the construction processes of 3D
networks.
The first presents a tool to create a 3D Manhole layer from points, and
the second is a tool to create a 3D pipe layer. For both tools, a work
algorithm has been built, in addition to designing user interfaces
elements. These tools are stored in a Toolbox called “3D Manhole &
Pipe.tbx”.
The proposed methodology is an easy and an effective way to build
3D network models, and the developed tools allow the implementation of
a set of necessary processes needed to build 3D networks.
Keywords: GIS, ArcGIS, ModelBuilder, 3D Modeling, 3D Utility Networks.

2018 اقتراح منهجية نصف آلية لنمذجة وتمثيل شبكات البنى…

Potential of Free and Open Source Geographic Information Systems (FOSS_GIS) Applications in Optimal Site Selection Analysis of Urban Project Dr.Eng. Hanan DARWISHE

ABSTRACT
Free and Open Source software (FOSS) is one of computer software, which source code can be accessed, freely used, modify, and distribute by anyone. It is produced by many of people or organizations, and distributed under licenses that comply with the open source definition. This software has recently begun to play an important role in the academic and scientific research field, as in the professional field. In the past few decades, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has seen very high growth rate, and this development included each of commercial and open source GIS software.
This research aims to show the great potential of Free and Open Source Geographic Information Systems (FOSS_GIS), and motivating to adopt it in developing countries, as a means to reduce licensing costs, promote local technological development through access to the source code and developing these systems. A case study is taken, in which we have tried to highlight the most important advantages of this software (i.e. FOSS_GIS), such as ease of implementation and good use, the ability to analyze and display of spatial data, professional maps production, and functionality emulator to commercial GIS software. The case study included the methodology of spatial suitability analysis, which is one of the main tasks of GIS; this methodology has been applied to choose the optimal site of urban project in Sheikh Badr area (Tartous Governorate) by proposing a set of general conditions. Using optimal site selection analysis of urban project helps to avoid the indiscriminate expansion and the irregular land-use. The free and open source software QGIS was used in this research, as well as the algorithms and tools of GRASS and SAGA softwares.
Key Words: FOSS_GIS, spatial analysis, QGIS, optimal site selection, Sheikh Bader area
* Assistant Professor, Department of Topographical Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering,
Tishreen University, Lattakia, Syria.( fadi.chaaban@gmail.com)
* *Assistant Professor, Department of Topographical Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering,
Al-Baath University, Homs, Syria.( hanan.darwishe@hotmail.com)

2017 إمكانيات أنظمة المعلومات الجغرافية الحرة ومفتوحة…

Procedural 3D Modeling of Cities in Geographic Information Systems Environment Using ESRI Cityengine Dr.Eng. Hanan DARWISHE

Abstract
Geographic Information Systems (GIS) present one of the most
important 3D modeling techniques of cities, which has become a
very important and necessary for representing of contemporary
cities, and doing different analyses, with the aim of finding
solutions to the problems raised through a virtual model of reality.
In addition, 3D GIS play an important role in urban planning.
Despite the presence of a large number of programs capable of
dealing with 3D objects, many of these applications require high
technologies and advanced tools for the representation and analysis
of 3D objects. The objects of 3D models represented in GIS can be
associated with a set of queryable attributes, and this is not available
in other 3D modeling software. This Research aims to highlight the
importance of procedural 3D modeling of cities in GIS environment
using ESRI CityEngine. A set of CGA (computer generated
architecture) rules – programmed by procedural modeling language
in CityEngine- will be presented to generate realistic 3D models
that can represent all elements of cities and its infrastructure. Then,
all the objects will be exported to a Web Scene viewer, which
allows the creation a comprehensive platform to present a system to
support decision-making, and facilitate project management related
to the management of cities. The research methods will be applied
to Tartous governorate through designing and modeling of proposed
residential area. This study will include CGA rules applied to create a 3D model of proposed area, it will show the importance of GIS in
modeling and representation of cities.
Key Words: GIS,3D modeling, Procedural modeling, CityEngine,
CGA, WebScene

Assistant Professor, Department of Topographical Engineering, Faculty of Civil
Engineering, AlBaath University, Homs, Syria.
** Assistant Professor, Department of Topographical Engineering, Faculty of Civil
Engineering, Tishreen University, Lattakia, Syria.

2017 النمذجة الإجرائية ثلاثية الأبعاد للمدن في بيئة أنظمة المعلومات الجغرافية..

Developing a New Methodology For Optimal Facility Site Selection Analysis Based On Fuzzy Logic In GIS Environment, Study Area: Tartous-Syria Dr.Eng. Hanan DARWISHE

Abstract
The overlay functions in Geographic Information Systems (GIS)
are considered as one of the basic functions of these systems,
and often, a variety of data stored in layers may be integrated
together to generate new layers that contain useful information for
decision-makers. All geographic objects are stored in layers and
usually rely on crisp set theory, whether, stored in a vector or
raster format. In many cases, boundaries of classes or objects are
not clearly defined, or when we perform classification of features
into classes, the geographic objects located in the boundaries of
classes could be classified into the wrong class. This research
aims to develop overlay functions methodology based on fuzzy
logic, reclassify the objects into fuzzy classes, and study the
usability of this method to integrate data of specific phenomenon
to help make optimal decisions. To implement and examine this
idea, a set of Fuzzy Membership Functions was developed using
the Python programming language embedded within the ArcGIS
environment. Through this Fuzzy Membership Functions, the user
can generate fuzzy sets and combine with each other according
to one of fuzzy operations, and thus the generation of fuzzy sets allows supporting the right and reliable decision. To test the
proposed fuzzy model capabilities, it has been applied in Tartous
governorate to select suitable tourist facility sites in accordance
with groups of factors. In summary, data integration using
proposed fuzzy overlay functions can improve the reliability of
data representation and thus the reliability of make the best
decisions.
Key words: GIS, Fuzzy Logic, Fuzzy overlay, optimal site
selection, Decision Support
* Assistant Professor, Department of Topographical Engineering, Faculty of Civil
Engineering,AlBaath University, Homs, Syria.

2016 تطوير منهجية جديدة في تحليل اختيار الموقع الأمثل لمنشأة ما باستخدام..

Two New Methods for Solving Systems of Nonlinear Equations Dr. Nidal E. Hassan

 ABSTRACT 
In this paper, we present two new methods for finding
the numerical solutions of systems of the nonlinear equations
F(X)  0 , where n n F :  . The basic idea depend on
founding relationship between minimum of a function and the
solution of systems of the nonlinear equations. The first method
seeks the numerical solution with a sequence of search
directions, which is depended on gradient and Hessian matrix of
function, while the second method is based on a sequence of
conjugate search directions. The study shows that our two
methods are convergent, and they can find exact solutions for
quadratic functions, so they can find high accurate solutions for
over quadratic functions. The purposed two algorithms are
programmed by Mathematica Version9. The approximate
solutions of some test problems are given. Comparisons of our
results with other methods illustrate the efficiency and highly
accurate of our suggested methods.
Key Words: Gradient, Hessian Matrix, Minimization, Nonlinear systems.Conjugate Directions

Assistant Prof, Depart. of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Al-Baath Universty,
Homes, Syria.

طريقتان-جديدتان-جمل-معادالت-غير-خطي-البعث